The history of the Gregorian chant: the recitative of the prayer will be echoed by the choral
Gregorian chorales, Gregorian chants ... Most of us automatically associate these words with the Middle Ages (and rightly so). But the roots of this liturgical chant go back to the…

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At the limit of hearing
The French otolaryngologist, Alfred Tomatis, was the first to systematically investigate the effect on the human psyche of high-frequency sounds. According to his theory, a child, floating in an amniotic…

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Is the performing teacher a creator or artisan? (dedicated to all teachers of instrumental classes)
Musical and instrumental pedagogy is a very strange science. Only someone who has gone through a system of music education can answer the question: “What is it?”. Studying at a…

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Russian choral music of the X-XVI centuries

Russian choral music of the 10th – 16th centuries is an important layer that serves as the basis for the further development of Russian music and culture as a whole. At the previous stage of development – in ancient Russia – folk art played a dominant role in the life of society, since developed secular forms of professional music simply did not exist. Even among the upper feudal strata and in the prince’s court, one could hear folk songs distributed by representatives of song traditions – buffoons.

DEVELOPMENT OF SPIRITUAL SINGING Everything has changed with the adoption of Christianity as the state religion in 988 and, as a result, the strengthening of ties with Byzantium. These events greatly influenced the further cultural development of our state. In contrast to folk song, church music developed, which at first was subject to the strong influence of Byzantium. Spiritual chants were recorded in Church Slavonic. This first stage of professional singing is evidenced by the preserved ancient musical hook manuscripts of the late 11th – 13th centuries, which still cannot be accurately deciphered. Together with Christianity, the system of temple singing was also borrowed – osmoslag, the beginning of which was laid by the custom to perform chants in a special voice in each of the 8 days of Easter. A little later, this custom spread to 8 weeks of the holiday period. “Come worship” is an example of a famous notation. Over time, the whole system of church music was modified, as a result of which ancient Russian art acquired its original form – a famous singing or a famous chant, which developed as part of the disagreement. The famous chant was based on chants – short motives in the tertz or quart range. The proverbial chorus included 3-4 such tunes. The melody of the znamenny chant was smooth, wavy and one-voice. It was performed only by the male choir in unison. The branch from the famous singing was condacar singing, the creator of which is Roman Sladkopevets. These are festive spiritual chants with a large number of melodic decorations and long chants of syllables. The refrain was specified already in the course of singing.

PEOPLE’S Singer Creativity As a result of civil wars and the subsequent capture of Russia by Khan Batu, the center of culture of the state turned out to be the independent and very wealthy trading city of Novgorod, which became the center of merrymaking. From this moment, folk singing takes on a special role. The epic genre is widely spread – epic, glorifying heroes and moral and ethical folk ideals. After the final victory over the Mongol-Tatar yoke and the reunification of Russian lands around Moscow in the 15th century. begins a new stage in the development of domestic art and culture. In folk art, the epic is replaced by a historical song, which tells about real heroes and events. A lyrical song also appears, the hallmarks of which were the improvisational nature of the tunes, as well as the depth and emotionality of the images. It is with the lyrical song that the emergence of the Russian choral sub-vocal polyphony is associated.

THE COLORING OF THE CHOIR CULTURE OF RUSSIA In the capital of Russia, at the court of Ivan III, a choir of sovereign singing clerks was established, constantly accompanying the tsar and singing during palace ceremonies and in cathedrals. At this time, options for the standard chant appear, such as the demean and traveling chants. “Singers on the Choir” – a painting by artist V.E. Makovsky’s By 1441, the first mention of the demine chants. Their repertoire is individual chants of Russian church singing books: Household, Oktoikh and Irmologiya, Holidays. In the future, this type of hymns became widespread in polyphony. The most striking master of such singing is Vasily Rogov. The traveling chant was used in stishira, and later in everyday life. For a long time this chant was considered the pinnacle of church singing. It was based on altered hymns of the banner chant. Long notes and a special rhythmic tread similar to a dotted line gave the character of a slow solemnity to this form of singing. Traveling chants were performed during the procession, the ceremonial entry of the clergy into the altar, or during a procession to the sources. Their content was elusive because of the great latitude of the chant. Variants of chants related to personal creativity or singing traditions also began to appear. An example of this is the Kiev, Yaroslavl, Vladimir chants, as well as Christians and baskets (by the names of the authors) chants. At the same time, early forms of polyphony appear – 2 and 3, less often 4-voice singing, the so-called lowercase singing. It was quite closely associated with folk music. The combination of lines was called “bottom”, “path”, “top”, “demest”: The path is the leading voice of the chant, and its performers were called travelers. The top was written over the path, and it was performed above the main voice. His tops sang. Under the path was written and executed below the lead – bottom. Performers were called nizhniki.

Composers-writers
Many eminent composers possessed an outstanding literary gift. In their literary heritage: music journalism and criticism, musicological, musical and aesthetic works, reviews, articles and much more. Often, musical geniuses were…

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What is a znamenny chant: meaning, history, types
Russian church music began with the famous chant that arose during the baptism of Russia. Its name is associated with the use of special notation signs - “banners” for its…

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Why does music heal?
Almost everything that happens in nature is connected with the world of sounds. In any case, in wildlife. It can be considered proven that music affects us, plants, and animals.…

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5 harmful and 5 useful products for the vocalist. Power Features and Voice Sounding
Nutrition plays a big role in the life and work of the vocalist. Sometimes the hoarse sound of a voice does not appear due to a sore throat, but with…

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